Independent Baptist churches (some also called Independent Fundamental Baptist, or IFB) are Christian congregations generally holding to conservative Baptist beliefs. Like all Baptist congregations, they are characterized by being independent from the authority of denominations or similar bodies. The word "independent" indicates that they eschew the Baptist conventions or associations in which many other Baptist churches affiliate.
The Independent Baptist tradition began in the late 19th and early 20th centuries among local Baptist congregations concerned about the perceived advancement of modernism and liberalism into national Baptist denominations and conventions in the United States and England. Some local Baptist churches separated from their former denominations and conventions and reestablished themselves as independent churches, while the more conservative elements of other churches set about establishing new Independent Baptist churches instead of remaining within their former denominational churches.
Members of Independent Baptist churches comprised three percent of the United States adult population according to a 2008 survey. According to the same survey, they represent less than 15 percent of adults who consider themselves Baptist.